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A
ACCESSORY
A building component added to a basic Kirby structure, such as door, window, ventilator, etc.
AISI
American iron and Steel Institute
AISC
American Institute of SI eel Construction
ALUMINIZED
Aluminum coated Steel
ANCHOR BOLTS
Bolts used 10 anchor structural members to a foundation or other support
ANCHOR BOLT DRAWINGS
Show the size, location and projection of all anchor bolts for the components of the metal building system, (he length and width of the foundation (which may vary from (he nominal size of The metal building system) and column reactions (magnitude and direction). The maximum base plate dimensions may also be shown.
APPROVAL DRAWINGS

Include anchor bolt drawing Framing plans, elevations and sections through the building for approval of the buyer or his consultant.

AUTOMATIC WELDING
A welding procedure utilizing a machine to make a weld.
AUXILIARY LOADS
All dynamic live loads required by the contract documents such as cranes and material handling systems.
A.W.S.
American Welding Society
AXIAL FORCE
A force tending to elongate and shorten a member.

B
B C
Beam and Column building. A single gable, rigid frame building with interior columns.
BASE ANGLE
A continuous angle secured to foundation to support wall panels.
BASE CHANNEL
A light gauge cold formed channel which replaces the base angle when liner panel or double sheeted partitions are required.
BASE PLATE
A plate attached to that portion of a beam or column that rests on the supposing surface, usually seeded with anchor bolts
BAY (END)
The distance between first interior frame and inside of end wall panel.
BAY (INTERIOR)
The distance between center lines of two rigid frames Or transverse bents, measured parallel to the ridge.
BEAM
A structural member usually horizontal carrying vertical loads which is ordinarily subject to bending.
BEAM, CANTILEVER
A beam supported al one end only and tree at the other; such as brackets, canopies , flag poles
BEAM, CONTINUOUS
A beam which has more than two points of support, (continuous span).
BEAM SIMPLE
A beam simply supported at both ends, theoretically with no rotational end restraint.
BEARING FRAME
Frame made up of beams and columns so constructed that joints are not capable of transferring moment due to lateral loads, usually used at sheeted end walls of a metal building, and when not subject to auxiliary loads or to further building expansion.
BILL OF MATERIALS
A list of items or components used for fabrication, shipping, receiving and accounting purposes.
BIRD SCREEN
Wire mesh used to prevent birds from entering the building through ventilators and louvers.
BLIND RIVET
A small headed pin with expandable shank for Joining light gauge metal. Typically used to attach flashing, gutter, etc.
BRACE RODS, ANGLES
Braces used in roof and walls to transfer loads, such as wind loads, and seismic and crane thrusts to the foundation.
BRACKET
A structural Support projecting from a wall or column on which to fasten another structural member. Examples are canopy brackets, lean-to brackets and crane runway brackets.
BRIDGE CRANE
A load lifting system consisting of a hoist which moves laterally on a beam, girder or bridge which in turn moves longitudinally on a runway made of beams and rails. Loads can be moved to any point within a rectangle formed by the bridge span and runway length.
BRIDGING
Structural members used to give weak axis stability to open web joists.
BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU)
Thai amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (2.2 kg.) of water by 1"F (Q.56C).
BUILDING CODE
Regulations established by a recognized agency describing design loads, procedures and construction details for structures.
BUILT-UP ROOFING
A roof covering made up of alternating layers of tar and asphaltic materials (mostly used for flat roofs).
BUILT-UP SECTION
A structural member, usually an " I" section, made iron individual fiat plates welded together.
BUTT PLATE
The end pi ale of a structural member usually used to rest against a like pi ale of another member in forming a connection. Sometimes called a splice plate-Or boiled end plate.
BY-FRAMED WALL
A wall framing system where the girts are mounted on the outside of the column.
BUTTERFLY CANOPY
A free standing, single column supporting roof structure, having a valley gutter at the centerline of the building, and the two outer edges of the roof projecting upwards.

C
" C " SECTION
A member cold formed iron steel sheet in the shape of a block "C" with or without lips al edge of flanges.
CALORIE
Quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water through 1C( 1 BTU = 252 Calories)
CAMBER
Upward curvature of a beam in the place of its web before loading, to offset an anticipated defection when load is applied.
CANOPY
A projecting beam that is supported end restrained at one end only.
CAPILLARY ACTION
That action which causes movement of liquids when in contact with two adjacent surfaces such as panel side laps.
CAP PLATE

A plate located at the top of a column or end of a beam for capping the exposed end of the member.

CAULK
See sealant
CHANNEL - HOT ROLLED - A "C"
shaped member formed while in a semi-molten slate at the steel mill to a shape hav­ing standard dimensions and properties.
CLIP
A plate or angle used to fasten two or more members together
CLOSURE STRIP
A resilient strip formed to the contour of ribbed panels and used to seal around openings created by metal panels joining other components and at horizontal and vertical comers of a building.
COLD FORMING
The process of using press brakes or rolling mills to shape steel into desired cross sections at room temperature.
COLLATERAL LOAD
All additional dead loads required by the Contract documents other than the weight of the metal building system, such as sprinklers, mechanical and electrical systems and ceilings.
COLUMN
A main member used in a vertical position on a building to transfer loads from main roof beams, trusses, or rafters to the foundation
COMPONENT
A part of a metal building system
COMPRESSION
The act of causing material to contract or shorten.
CONCENTRATED LOAD
A load app; ed on a member at a point or over a very short distance.
CONTINUITY
The terminology given to a structural system denoting the transfer of loads and stresses from member to member as if there were no connections.
CONTRACT DOCUM ENTS
The documents which define the responsibilities of the parties involved in the sale, design, supply and erection (if any }of a metal building system. Such documents normally consist of a contract and specification. Plans may be included.
CORNER TRIM
Preformed sheet metal trim used to close the junction of sidewall and end wall sheets.
COVERING
The exterior metal roof and wall paneling of a metal building system.
CRANE
A machine designed to move material by means of a hoist.
CRANE RAIL
A track s supporting and guiding the wheels of a bridge crane or trolley system, and mounted on crane runway beams.
CRANE RUNWAY BEAM
The member that supports a crane rail and is supported by columns or rafters depending on the type of crane system. On under hung bridge cranes, runway beams also act as crane rail.
CURB
A raised edge or a concrete floor slab.
CURTAIN WALL
Perimeter wall panels which carry only their own weight and wind load.

D
DAMPER
A baffle used to open or close the throat of ventilators.
DEAD LOAD
The self weight of tile metal building system construe lion, such as framing, and covering members.
DEFLECTION
The displacement of a structural member of system under load.
DESIGN LOADS
The loads expressly specified in the contract documents which the metal building system is designed to safely resist.
DIAGONAL BRACING
See Brace Rods
DIAPHRAGM ACTION
The capacity of a roof, wall, or floor system to resist load in its own plane. (As building roof and wall systems resisting longitudinal wind load without rod bracing).
DOOR GUIDE
An angle or channel guide used to stabilize or Keep plumb a sliding or rolling door during its operation,
DOWNSPOUT
A conduit used to carry water from the gutter of a building.
DRIFT PIN
A tapered pin used during erection to align holes in steel members 1o be connected by bolting ( also called spud wrench ).

E
EAVE
The line along the sidewall formed by the intersection of the planes of the roof and wall.
EAVE GUTTER
See Gutter.
EAVE H EIGHT
The vertical dimension from bottom of column base plate to top of the eave strut.
EAVE STRUT
A structural member located al the eave of a building which supports roof and wall paneling. Also member which transmits longitudinal wine forces on end wall from roof brace rods to wall brace rods.
EAVE TRIM
Preformed sheet metal I rim used to close off top of sidewall panels at roof line In lieu of eave gutter.
ELASTIC DESIGN
A design concept utilizing the proportional behavior of materials when all stresses are limited 10 specified allowable values of the yield stress of the materials.
END FRAME
A frame located at the end wall of a building which supports the loads from a portion of the end bay.
END WALL
An exterior wall which is perpendicular to the ridge of the building.
END WALL COLUMN
A vertical member located at the end wall of a building which Supports the girts.
END WALL EXTENSION
The projection of the roof past the end wall.
ERECTION
The on-site assembling of fabricated components to form a complete structure.
ERECTION DRAWINGS
A package of Drawings, issued for construction and include anchor bolt drawings and roof' and wall framing (erection) plans that identify individual components and accessories furnished by Kirby in sufficient detail to permit proper erection of the building.
EXPANSION JOINT
A break or space in construction to allow for thermal expansion and contract ion of the materials used in the structure.

F
FABRICATION
The manufacturing process performed in a plant to convert raw material into finished metal building components. The main operations are CO Id forming, cutting, punching, welding, cleaning and painting.
FASCIA
A structural framing member projecting from the face of a wail for decorative purposes.
FIELD
The "Job site", "building site" or general marketing area. FILLER STRIP - See "Closure"
FIXED BASE
A column base that is designed to resist rotation as well as horizontal or vertical movement (develops bending moment).
FLANGE
The projecting portion of a structural member (C, I, H shapes).
FLANGE BRACING
A bracing member used to provide lateral support to the compression flange of a beam, girder or column.
FLASHING
See Trim.
FLUSH FRAMES
A wall framing system where the outside flange of the girts and columns are flush,
FOOTING
A pad or mat. usually of concrete, located under a column, wall or other structural member, that is used to distribute the loads from that member into the supporting soil.
FOUNDATION
The substructure which supports a building or other structure
FRAME
Primary structural members made up of columns, rafters which support secondary framing.
FRAMED OPENING
Jambs, headers and flashing which surround an opening in the wall of a metal building.

G
GABLE
The triangular portion of the end wall located above the elevation of the bottom of eave strut,
GABLE ROOF
A ridged roof that terminates in gables.
GAGE
Distance between holes along transverse axis of plate.
GAUGE
Numerals referring to thickness of thin sheeting materials, No direct mathematical relation between gauge number and thickness: the higher the gauge number, the thinner the sheeting material.
GALVANIZED
Steel coated with Zinc for corrosion resistance,
GIRDER

A main horizontal or near horizontal structural member that supports vertical loads, It may consist of several pieces.

GIRT
A horizontal structural member that is attached to sidewall or end wall columns and supports paneling.
GLAZE OR GLAZING
The process of installing glass in windows and doors.
GRADE
The term used when referring to the ground elevation around a building.
GRADE BEAM
A concrete beam around (he perimeter of a building.
GROUT
A mixture of lament, sand and water used to fill cracks and cavities. Sometimes used under base plates or leveling places to obtain uniform bearing surfaces. Normally used in conjunction with metal building systems.
GUSSET PLATE
A steel plate used to reinforce or connect structural elements.
GUTTER
A light gauge metal member at an eave, valley or parapet designed to carry water from the roof to downspouts or drains.

H
"H" Section
A steel member with an H cross section.
HAIRPIN
U-shaped reinforcing steel or round bar hooked around anchor bolts and embedded in concrete floor mass, to transfer the horizontal thrust at the base of the rigid frames to the concrete floor.
HAUNCH
The deepened portion of a column or rafter designed to accommodate the higher bending moments at such points. (Usually occurs at the connection of column and rafter). Also referred to as Knee.
HAUNCH B RACE
A diagonal brace from the intersection of the column and rafter section of the rigid frame to the eave to prevent lateral buckling of the haunch,
HEADER
The horizontal framing member located at the fop of a framed opening.
HEM
Edge of trim or flashing turned 180 degrees on itself for increased strength.
HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS

Any bolt made from steel having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 pounds per square inch (690 MPa).

HIGH STR ENGTH STEEL
Structural steel having a yield stress in excess of 36.000 pounds per square inch (250 MPa).
HINGED BASE
A column base which is designed to resist horizontal and vertical movement but not rotation. Also refer­red to as pinned base.
HIP ROOF
A roof which rises by inclined planes from all four sides of a building. The line where two adjacent sloping sides of a roof meet is called the Hip.
HOIST
A mechanical lifting device usually attached to a trolley which travels along a bridge, monorail or jib crane. May be chain or electric operated.
HOOD
Metal flashing to cover exterior sliding door track along the full length of the door header.
HOT ROLLED SHAPES
Steel section (angles, channels, S-shapes, W-Shapes, etc) which are formed by rolling mills while the steel is in a semi-molten state.

I
IMPACT LOAD
A dynamic load resulting from the motion of machinery, elevators, crane ways, vehicles, and other similar moving forces Sec Auxiliary Loads.
IMPACT WRENCH
A pneumatic device used to tighten nuts on-bolts.
INSULATION
Any material used in building construction to reduce heat transfer.
INTERNAL PRESSURE
Pressure made a building which is a function of wind velocity and number and location of openings.

J
JACK BEAM
A beam used to support another beam or rafter or truss and eliminate a column support.
JAMB
The vertical framing members located at the sides of wall opening.
JIB CRANE
A cantilevered boom or horizontal beam with hoist and trolley. This lifting machine may pick up loads in all or part of a circle around the column to which it is attached.
JIG
A device used to hold pieces of material in a certain position during fabrication.
JOIST
Open web beam for supporting the floor or roof, made of continuous angular lop and bottom chords which are connected with vertical and diagonal angles.

K
KICK-OUT
An extension attached to the bottom of a downspout to direct water away from a wall. Also referred to as Turn-Out or Elbow
KILO-CALORIE (K.CAL)
Quantity of heat required 10 raise the temperature of one Kilogram of water by 1 C
KILOGRAM
Metric Unit of Mass. {1 Kg = 2.2 Ibm}.
KIP
An imperial unit to measure force equal to 1000 pounds equivalent to 4.4 kilonewtons.
KIRBY-DECK PANEL
Standard corrugated panel used for floor deck.
KIRBY-RIB PANEL
Standard corrugated pane! used for roof, liner and soffits.
KIRBY-WALL PANELS
Standard corrugated panel used for exterior surface of walls,

L
LEAN-TO
A structure such as a shed, having only one column and depending upon another structure for partial support.
LEVELING PLATE
A steel plate used on top of a foundation or other support on which a structural column can rest.
LINER PANEL
A metal panel attached to the inside flange of the girts, or the purlin.
LINTEL
A beam : concrete, steel or stone, in masonry walls, placed above doors, openings or windows to support masonry above.
LIP
A stiffener at the edge of flange of cold formed members.
LIVE LOAD
Any moving or variable load which the structure must support due to the use or occupancy of the building.
LOUVER
An opening provided with fixed or movable, slanted fins to allow flow of air.

M
MAIN MEMBERS
The main load carrying members of a structural system including columns, end wall posts, rafters and other main support members.
MANSARD FASCIA
A tilted fascia projected from the wall and extended above roof line to form as decorative ap­pearance and to hide the roof line.
MASONRY
Construction materials such as bricks, concrete blocks, ceramic blocks, and concrete.
MASTIC
Material used to seal cracks, joints and laps.
MBMA
Metal Building Manufacturers Association.
MBMA CODE OF STANDARD PRACTICES

A listing of normal conditions that apply to the sale, design, fabrication and erection of a metal building system.

METAL BUILDING SYSTEM
A metal building system consists of a group of coordinated components, including struc­tural members, exterior covering panels, fastening devices and accessories, which have been designed for specific loads, which will work together compatibly and which have been engineered so that they may be mass produced and assembled in various combinations, or in a combination with various collateral materials, to provide an enclosed or par­tially enclosed structure.
METER
Metric unit of length (1 m = 3.28 ft)
MEZZANINE
An intermediate floor within a metal building used for offices or storage, may or may not be connected to main frame building, and consisting of beams, columns, joists, deck and edge angles to receive reinforced concrete.
MICRON
Equivalent to 0.001 Millimeter
MIL
Equivalent lo0.001 Inch
MOMENT
The tendency of a force to cause rotation or bending, about a point or axis. Force times a distance (Torque).
MOMENT CONNECTION

A connection designed to transfer moment as well as axial and shear forces between con­necting members.

MOMENT OF JNERTIA
A physical property of a member which helps define strength and deflection characteristics.
MONITOR
Raised gable or triangular portion of main building at ridge location to allow lighting or ventilation at vertical sides of monitor.
MONOLITHIC CONSTRUCTION
A method of pouring concrete grade beam and floor slab together :form the building foundation without forming and pouring each separately.
MONORAIL
A single rail support for a material handling system. Normally a standard hot rolled I-Beam.
MPa
Mega-Pascal
MULLION
Vertical member connecting two windows located side by side.
MULTI-SPAN BUILDING
Building consisting of more than one gable across the width which may or may not have in­terior columns within each gable.

N
NEWTON
Metric unit of force (IN = 4.45 Ibf)

O

 


P
PANEL
Gauge metal sheets usually with ribbed configuration and used for Roof and Wall skins
PARAPET
That portion of the wall which extends vertically above the roof line to form a fascia type appearance.
PARTITION
An interior dividing wall.
PASCAL
Metric unit of stress or pressure, force per unit area (N/M^2)
PEAK
The uppermost point of a gable.
PEAK PANEL
A "Kirby-Rib" panel located at the building peak conforming to roof slopes.
PEAK SIGN
A sign attached to the peak of the building at end wall showing Kirby as the building manufacturer.
PERSONNEL DOOR
A door used by personnel for access to and exit from a building.
PIECE MARK
A number given to each separate part of the building for erection identification. Also called mark number and part number.
PIER
A concrete structure designed to transfer vertical load from base of column to a footing.
PIG SPOUT
A sheet metal section designed to direct the flow of water out through the face of the gutter rather than through a downspout.
PILASTER
A reinforced or enlarged portion of a masonry wall 10 provide support for roof loads or lateral loads on the wall.
PIN NED BASE
A column base that is designed to resist horizontal and vertical movement, but not rotation.
PIN CONNECTION
A connection designed to transfer the axial and shear forces between connecting members, but not moments.
PITCH
Distance between holes along longitudinal axis of plate.
PLASTIC DESIGN
A design concept based on multiplying the actual loads by a suitable load factor using the yield stress as the maximum stress in any member.
PLASTIC PANELS
See Translucent Light Panels.
PONDING
The gathering of water at low or irregular areas on a roof.
POP RIVET
See " Blind Rivet".
PORTAL FRAME
A rigid frame structure so designed that it offers rigidity and stability in its plane. It is used to resist longitudinal loads while diagonal bracing is not permitted. (.also "Wind Bent").
POST (END POST)
See "End Wall Column''
PRE-PAINTED COIL
Coil metal which received a paint coating prior to the forming operation.
PRESS BRAKE
A machine used in cold-forming metal sheet or strip into desired cross section.
PRESTRESSED CONCRETE
Concrete in which the reinforcing cables, wires or rods in the concrete are tensioned before there is load on the member, holding the concrete in compression for greater strength.
PRISMATIC BEAM
A beam with uniform rectangular cross section.
PURLIN
A horizontal structural member attached to the main frames which supports roof panels.

Q

 


R
RF
A single gable rigid frame building.
RAFTER
The main beam of the frames supporting the roof system.
RAKE
The intersection of the plane of the roof and the plane of the end wall.
RAKE ANG LE
Angle fastened to purlins at rake for attachment of end wall sheets.
RAKE TRIM
Sheet metal flashing used to cover the intersection of the roof and the end wall of a building.
REACTIONS
The resisting forces at the column bases of a frame, holding the frame in equilibrium under a given loading condition.
REINFORCING STEEL
The steel bars placed in concrete to help carry the tension, compression and shear stresses, as well as temperature stresses.
RIDGE
Highest point on the roof of the building which describes a horizontal line running the length of the building.
RIDGE CAP
A transition of the roofing materials along the ridge of a roof,
RIGID CONNECTION
See "Moment Connection".
RIGID FRAME
A structural frame consisting of members joined together with rigid for moment connections so as to render the frame stable with respect to the design loads, without the need for bracing in its plane.
ROLL-UP DOOR
Door that is supported on a shaft or drum and a vertical track.
ROOF COVERING
The exposed exterior roof skin consisting of panels or sheets.
ROOF LI VE LOAD
Those loads induced by the use and occupancy of the building, not including wind load, seismic load or dead load.
ROOF OVERHANG
A roof extension beyond the end wall or sidewall of a building.
ROOF PITCH
Ratio of rise to total width of a single slope
ROOF SLOPE
The angle that a roof surface makes with the horizontal .Usually expressed in units of vertical rise to 10 units of horizontal run.
ROOF SNOW LOAD
The load induced by the weight of snow on the roof of the structure.
ROPESEAL
(See "Sealant")

S
SS
Single Slope clear span buildings
SV
Space Saver building - a single gable clear span with straight columns and flush girts to offer maximum clearances,
SAG ROD, STRAP, OR ANGLE
A tension member used to limit the deflection of a girt or purlin in the direction of the weak axis.
SANDWICH PANEL

A panel assembly used as covering; consists of an insulating core material with inner and outer skins.

SCREEDING
The process of striking off the excess concrete to bring the top surface of the concrete to proper finish and elevation.
SEALANT
Any material which is used to seal cracks, joints or laps
SECTION MODU LUS
A physical property of a structural member. It is used to design and basically describes the bending strength of a member.
SEISMIC LOAD
The assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal direction on a structural system due to the action of an earthquake, usually a proportion of dead load.
SELF DRILLING SCREW
A fastener which combines the functions of drilling and tapping. It is used for attaching panels to purlins and girts.
SELF TAPPING SCREW
A fastener which taps its own threads in a pre drilled hole. It is for attaching panels to purlins and girts, for connecting trim, flashing, and panel side lap.
SHEAR
The force tending to make two contacting parts slide upon eachother in opposite directions parallel to their plane of contact
SHEET NOTCH
A notch or block termed along the outside edge of the foundation to provide support for the wall panels and serve as a closure along their bottom edge.
SHEETING ANGLE
An angle used to support sheeting.
SHIM
A piece of steel used to level base plates or square beams.
SHIPPER
A list that enumerates by part number or describes each piece of material or assembly to be shipped. Also called tally sheet or bill of materials.
SOLDIER COLUMN
A column in sidewalls. outside the main frame lines, located in extended bays to support sidewall girls framed at too with jack beam to adjacent two main frames.
SHOP PRIMER PAI NT
The initial coat of primer paint applied in the shop.
SHOULDER BOLT
A fastener used to attach wall and roof paneling to the structural frame. It consists of a large diameter shank and a small diameter stud. The shank provides support for the panel rib.
SHOT PIN
A device for fastening items by the utilization of a patented device which uses powdered charge to imbed the item in the concrete and / or steel
SI
The International symbol for the metric unit used by the United States {Le Sysleme Iniernational d'Unites).
SIDE LAP FASTENER
A fastener used to connect panels together at the Side lap.
SIDE WALL
An exterior wall which is parallel to the ridge of the building.
SIDE WALL OVERHANG
A projection of the roof past the sidewalk
SILL
The bottom horizontal framing member of an opening such as a window or door.
SILL ANGLE
See " Base Angle "
SIMPLE SPAN
A term used in structural analysis to describe a support condition for a beam, girl, purlin, etc. which offers no resistance to rotation at the supports: opposite to continuous.
SINGLE SLOPE
A slope in one plane. The slope is from one wall to the opposite wall.
SINGLE SPAN
A building or structural member without intermediate support.
SKYLIGHT
A translucent panel. A roof accessory to admit light, made of fiber glass reinforced polyester to the profiles of Kirby standard sheeting profiles.
SLIDING DOOR
A single Or double leaf door which opens on a horizontal track by means of overhead trolleys.
SOFFIT
A metal panel which covers the underside of an overhang, canopy, or fascia.
SOIL PRESSURE
The load per unit area a structure will exert through its foundation on the soil.
SPALL
A chip or fragment of concrete which has chipped, weathered or otherwise broken tram the main mass of concrete.
SPAN
The out-to-out of steel lines for building frames, or the distance between supports of beams for secondary members
SPLICE
A connection in a structural member.
STAINLESS STEEL

An alloy of steel which contains a high percentage of chromium. Also may contain nickel or copper.

STIFFENER
A member used to strengthen a plate against lateral or local buckling. Usually a flat bar welded perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the member.
STIFFENER LIP
A short extension of material at an angle to the flange of cold formed structural members, which adds strength to the member.
STILES
The vertical side members of framed and paneled doors.
STRESS
A measure of the load on a structural member in terms of force per unit area (kips per sq. in.) (MPa).
STRUT
A brace fitted into a framework which resists axial compression forces.
STRUT PURLIN
An additional purlin in braced bays located close to the purlin at the intersection of roof brace rods and the frame rafter as required by design.
STUD
A vertical wall member to which exterior or interior covering or collateral material may be attached. May be either load bearing or non-load bearing.
SUCTION
A partial vacuum resulting from wind loads on a building which cause a load in the outward direction.

T
TAPERED MEMBER
A built-up plate member consisting of flanges welded to a variable depth web.
TEMPERATURE REINFORCING
Light weight deformed steel rods or wire mesh placed in concrete to resist possible cracking from thermal expansion or contraction.
TENSILE STRENGTH
The longitudinal pulling stress a material can bear without tearing apart.
THERMAL BLOCK
A spacer of low thermal conductance material.
THERMAL CONOUCTIVITY (k)

The rate of heal transmission by conduction in unit time through unit area of an infinite slab in a direction perpendicular to the surface for unit temperature difference, expressed as BTU per hour per square foot per inch thickness per *F.

TH ERM AL CON DUCTANCE (C)
The rate of heat flow, in BTU's per hour, through a square loot of material of specified thickness whose surfaces have a temperature differential Of 1 *F.
THERMAL RESISTANCE (R)
Resistance to heat low. The reciprocal of conductance (C).
THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (U)
The rate of heat transmission in unit time through unit area of an assembly of materials for unit temperature difference, expressed as BTU per hour per square foot per "F. This is also referred to as the overall coefficient of heat transfer.
THROAT
Minimum width of ventilator air inlet.
THRUST
The horizontal component of a reaction.
TIE
A structural member that is loaded in tension.
TORQUE WRENCH
A wrench containing an adjustable mechanism for measuring and controlling 1 he amount of torque or turning force to be exerted often used in tightening nuts and high strength Dolts.
TRANSLUCENT LIGHT PANELS
Translucent plastic panels used to admit sunlight.
TRANSVERSE
The direction perpendicular to I he ridge.
TRIBUTARY AREA
The area which contributes load to a specific structural component.
TRIM
The fight gauge metal used in the finish of a building especially around openings and at intersection of surfaces. Often referred to as flashing.
TRACK
A metal guide for moving components; consisting of angles or channels, with fastenings, lies, etc. for a crane way, monorail or slide door.
TRUSS
A structure made up of three or more members, with each member designed to carry a tension or compression force. The entire structure in turn acts as a beam.
TURNOUT
See "Kickout"
TURN-OF-THE-NUT METHOD
An approved method for pre-tensioning high strength bolls. The nut is turned from the snug-tight position, corresponding to a few blows of an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using an ordinary spud wrench, the amount of relation required being a function of the bolt diameter and length.

U
UNIFORM LOAD
A load which is evenly spread over a large area of a framing system,
UPLIFT
Wind load on a building which causes a load in the upward direction. (See "Suction").

V
VALLEY GUTTER
A channel used to carry off water from the " V" of roofs of multi-gabled buildings.
VENTILATOR
An accessory, usually used on the roof, that allows the air to pass through.

W
WAINSCOT
Wall material, used in the lower portion of a wall, that is different from the malarial in the rest of the wall.
WALL, BEARING
Wall capable of supporting a vertical load, other than its own weight.
WALL COVERING
The exterior wall skin consisting of panels or sheets.
WALL, NON BEARING
Wall capable of supporting its own weight only.
WEB
That portion of a structural member between the flanges.
WEB MEMBER
A secondary structural member vertical or diagonal interposed between the top and bottom chords of a truss.
WICKET DOOR
An access door within one leaf of a sliding door.
WIND BENT
See "Portal Frame".
WIND COLUMN
A vertical member supporting a wall system designed to withstand horizontal wind loads usually at end walls
WIND LOAD
The load caused by the wind blowing from any horizontal direction.

X

 


Y

 


Z
"Z" SECTION
A member cold formed from steel coil in the shape of a block "Z".
ZINC-ALUMINIUM COATED
Steel coated with zinc and aluminum for corrosion resistance

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